International Chocolate Bar Association

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Chocolate Terminology

Being a Chocolate Lover is one thing, but actually having some basic concept of the more important terms moves you into a slightly different category.  Maybe you've been thinking about taking your cocolate passion to the next level, or maybe you'd just like to understand some of the Chocolate lingo being tossed around on gourmet cooking shows?  Some of the chocolate defitions and their ingredients might surprise you.  Nothing could be more true than you get what you pay for when you purchase Chocolate.  Have fun!

                         Gourmet Chocolate Oreos

                         Chocolate Fountains

                         Sacred Chocolate


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Abaisse   The French word used for rolling out Marzipan or Gianduja with a rolling pin.
Acadamie Francaise   French Academy For Confectionary and Chocolate is an independent, non profit organiztion representing French chocolatiers and confectioners.  Their mission is to train and educate professionals, provide information for consumers and above all to promote superior Chocolate and Confectionary products.
After Taste   A term borrowed from the wine industry noting the positive lingering Chocolate taste on the palate which should last about two minutes.
Alkalinisation   Conraad Johannes Van Houten, a 19th century Dutchman added alkali potash to the nibs prior to roasting in order to remove the bite and acidic taste of the Cacao.  100% natural Cacao and chocolate will never be alkalized, all industrial chocolate uses this technique to modify the taste and color.
Amelonado Bean    A superior, delicate, mild flavored type of Forastero Cacao bean, considered a hybrid of the Nacional subspecies of Forastero..
Antioxidant   Antioxidants offer protection from free radical damage to your body, Dark Chocolate is exceptionally rich in Antioxidants, it has earned Super Food status among those concerned with good health.
Artisan   Like other premium quality, hand crafted artisan products, Chocolate Artisans use superior products and traditional skills to create small batches of personally produced, non assembly line, Artisan chocolates.
Bain Marie   Mary's Bath gently melts chocolate in a French version of a double boiler.  The bath is a pan of chocolate, or other food, in another pan of simmering water.  The alchemy term was named after Moses's sister, an alchemist.
Baking Chocolate   Made from pure Chocolate liquor with 100% Cacao content and no added sugar.  Originally used for baking with a blend of other ingredients.  Dr James Baker was co owner of the first American Chocolate mill.  Premium Chocolate makers offer 100% Caco Chocolates for those who prefer their Chocolate straight or who wish to minimize their sugar consumption.  This solid block or bar will be considered bitter by those who eat candy bars.
Ballotin   A Belgian chocolate box created with compartments to prevent chocolates from crushing each other.  The chocolates can't move from their individual, structural compartments.  Ballotin are a 1912 elegant design of Louise Agostini, a relation of the founder of Neuhaus Chocoaltes.
Baton   A French term used for a specialized slim bar of Chocolate.
Belgian   Belgian Chocolatier, Jean Neuhaus, created the Chocolate molding technique in 1912.  This pouring process creates a harder, thicker shell which allows liquid fillings and creams to be used in the centers.  Belgian chocolats are typically larger, with thicker shells and a sweeter ganache.
Bittersweet   Bittersweet is a slightly sweetened dark chocolate required by the FDA to contain a minimum 35% Chocolate Liquor.  It is primarily used for baking, making chocolate garnishes, chocolate curls or dense chocolate concoctions.
Blended Bar   Sometimes called House Bars to consistently represent a particular manufacturer.  Made from a combination of Cacao beans, growing regions or harvest dates.
Blending   Before grinding and after roasting the crushed Cacao beans are blended with other ingredients specific to a particular Chocolatier or chocolate manufacturer's formula.  The blending process is to create a consistent style that won't taste different from harvest to harvest.
Bloom   Temperature related Fat bloom or Cacao butter bloom can cause a Chocolate to appear unappealing.  The chocolate will lose it's sheen and a powdery gray or tan film will coat the surface.  These blooms are caused from temperature extremes, improper storage or repeated heating and cooling.  The Cacao butter particles group together thus leaving the sugar and Cacao exposed.  The Chocolate could change it's texture and become soft or easily crumble.  Fat bloom or Sugar bloom look similar but the fat blooms feels oily to the touch and melts on contact, while the sugar bloom feels gritty.  This does not make the chocolate harmful, or even significantly alter it's taste, it's a cosmetic flaw.
Bon Bon   The Bonbon de Chocolat in French is different from the ice cream bon bons kids gobble.  It means Good Good and is a hard shell chocolate which is felled with different soft centers.
Bouchon   A solid or filled cork shaped chocolate which gets it's name from the French.
Boutique   A Boutique is different from an Artisan Chocolatier.  A boutique is a specialty shop that offers particular items, which do not imply that they are premium quality or handcrafted or Artisan quality.  They often represent a variety of manufacturers and qualities.  However, some Boutiques do offer superior products.
Brownies   Considered to be the most popular American Chocolate baked good, originated in the late 1800's it has undergone a complete transformation and now includes many varieties and additional ingredients beyond Chocolate.  Some are chewy, some are soft and fudgy, and others are dense and some are even raw.
Brut   The FDA describes this as Chocolate without sugar, although it may have other natural or artificial flavorings.  Most people will use this as a baking chocolate, although more and more people are becoming aware of the health benefits of dark chocolate and enjoy this delightful bar with a bitter bite.
Butter fat   Cacao butter is a vegetable product and doesn't have butter fat which is the natural fat in milk that is separated by the churning process.
Butter oil   Butter oil is clarified butter from milk used to create a smooth texture in chocolates.  It's also cheaper to use than Cacao butter, so many manufacturers substitute it, knowing that most people will never know the difference.
Cabruca   This symbiotic relationship is created to plant mid height Cacao trees in existing rain forests by selectively removing a few of the taller rainforest trees which canopy the Amazon and other Cacao growing regions.   The Cacao yields will be lower, but the rainforest will not be cleared and the Cacao will thrive better with the rich biodiversity it requires for pollination and to avoid pod rot, common in Cacao plantations.
Cacahuatl   This is the Aztec Nahuatl language for Cacao bean and the drink that has been enjoyed for thousands of years.  It's pronounced Cah Cah WA Tay and comes from the Mayan word Xocoatl, pronounced Jo Co Ah Tay.
Cacao   The FDA uses Cacao in reference to the bean which produces Cacao butter, Cacao powder & Chocolate liquor.  The general term Cacao is also used for the unprocessed pods of the Cacao plant, and many people use it as the term for Chocolate.
Cacao bean   Is the seed inside the Cacao pod of the Theobroma Caco tree.  All Cacao is grown in tropical rainforests.  There are chocolate brokers who market their country's cacao, while some is purchased from small co ops or individual plantations.  There are 20-40 almond shaped cacao beans in a pod.  Within a few hours from picking the sweetish beans become bitter and inedible due to the sugar conversion.
Cacao belt   Theobroma cacao trees like it hot, damp, sultry and grow in tropical rainforests which offer a botanically rich, environment with incredible biodiversity.  There is a narrow 20 degree band north and south of the Equator where Theobroma cacao grows.  Originating in Central America and deep in the Amazon basin, Cacao now grows in Venezuela, Ecuador, Mexico, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire, Madagascar, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Grenada, Java and Sumatra
Cacao butter   Cacao seeds should be pressed at low temperatures to make pure Cacao butter.  Many Cacao butters are processed with high temperatures and chemically treated, make sure you know what you're buying.  Natural Cacao butter is the pure hard, vegetable fat of the cacao bean.  Raw cacao butter is loaded with beneficial saturated fats and considered to be a superior skin and hair moisturizer.  Always insist on real delicious Cacao butter with nothing hydrogenated, nor other vegetable oils or  soy lecithin   to dilute, or contaminate, the intensity of it's rich yellow color.  It contracts and cools and solidifies at temperatures under 76 degrees and melts on contact with your skin.  It's used to adjust the fluidity of chocolate and is perfect for molding.  It is excellent as a premium skin care ingredient and used in soaps or body lotions and body butters.  It offers a gentle chocolate aroma.  It takes 3 lbs of Cacao seeds to make 1 lb of Cacao butter.

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Cacao Content   North American standards require milk chocolate to contain a minimum of 10% Chocolate liquor.  Semisweet or Bittersweet must have at least 35%.  Higher percentages represent more intense Chocolate flavor and aroma.
Cacao Dance   After the twice yearly harvesting the Cacao beans are spread out to dry.  In some of the Central American Cacao growing regions the women enjoy a ritualistic dance through the beans to turn them which helps them dry more evenly.
Cacao Fevier   Is what the French call a Bean to Bar producer.
Cacao Mass   Is the finely ground nib of the Cacao bean which is produced grinding the Cacao bean to a smooth liquid.  It is unsweetened and is also known as Cacao Liquor, even though there isn't any alcohol or fermentation involved.
Cacao Nibs   Raw, unprocessed Cacao beans are chopped as  nibs  and are a deep, dark, delicious pure unadulterated source of cacao, a true mineral rich, vitamin loaded, high protein superfood!  Raw Cacao is the richest natural food magnesium source which is highly deficient in most western diets.  These raw seeds are high in Vitamin C which promotes healthy hair, nails, skin and proper pancreatic, immune system and heart functions.  Cooking or processing diminishes the free radical antioxidant properties.  Once used by the Aztecs as currency and long appreciated for relaxing sensations and valued as an aphrodisiac.  They are potent, slightly bitter and are delicious in a wide variety of natural treats, desserts, teas, and beverages.  They can be ground up and used in smoothies with cinnamon, chilies or other spices.  Cacao nibs can be used for almost any type of edible delight or eaten straight, mixed or added as a trail mix.  They can be eaten raw or roasted.  Cacao nibs provide all of its natural nourishment without any of the synthetics that you find with chocolate on the market.
Cacao Pod   The Cacao tree is permanently flowering and the large football size fruits, or pods, can easily be seen between the blossoms.  The pods are 6 to 12 inches long and hang from the trunk and largest branches.  Each pod contains 20-40 beans.
Cacao Powder   Pure 100% cacao powder made by pressing pure, unsweetened chocolate.  Perfect for baking or for making into a flavorful, aromatic chocolate drinks or to sprinkle truffles and tarts, also great in smoothies.
Cacao Transfer   Transfer sheets of paper with beautiful designs are set on top of enrobed Chocolate.  The design is transferred through rubbing and lends a very elegant quality to your chocolates.
Caffeine   The small amount of caffeine in 1 oz of Chocolate is less than a cup of decaffeinated coffee, so it can be enjoyed day or night by most people.  Cacao's legendary aphrodisiac properties are due to Theobromine and Phenethylamine which bind to the same brain receptors as THC.  Theobromine's effects are rapid, soothing and enhances blood circulation and tactile sensations.
Carraque   Solid milk or dark chocolate pieces, which are sometimes topped with raisins, almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts.
CarreA small tasting square of chocolate, just bite size about 5 to 10 grams.
Chocolate   It is believed that the Spanish used the combination of the Mayan word Xoco which meant hot and the Aztec word atl meaning water to create the word of Chocolatl, that is pronounced choc o la tay.  It's easy to see why the caca or kakawa was rejected.  Caca is childish, vulgar Spanish word for excrement.  Cacao, is actually pronounced ka COW, so to my ear it doesn't sound like ka ka.
Chocolate Chips    A term used for a cacao plant but also for the unprocessed product (pods) of the cacao plant.
Chocolate Liquor   Is the finely ground nib of the Cacao bean which is produced grinding the Cacao bean to a smooth, liquid.  It is unsweetened and is also known as Cacao mass, even though there isn't any alcohol or fermentation involved.   In the US Chocolate Liquor can be called chocolate, unsweetened chocolate, butter or baking chocolate.  It is often called Cacao mass or Cacao liquor in other countries.  Chocolate liquor is used for adjusting cacao contents, to make brownies, mousse or other intensely decadent, chocolate flavored concoctions.
Chocolate Lover   A witty, intelligent, attractive, brilliant person who truly knows and appreciates that life without chocolate is somehow smaller, cold, sterile, colorless and bleak.
Chocolate Syrup   It may be approximately the same color as real chocolate, but often that is where the similarity ends.  Chocolate syrups are often full of artificial colors and flavorings, vegetable oils, soy lecithin and may or may not have any chocolate whatsoever, plus they are sugar heavy and not really very appetizing if you read the label.  There may be chocolate based syrups without the artificial sweeteners and stabilizers, read those labels.
Chocolatier   A title given to individuals holding key positions in premium chocolate manufacturing facilities, or to a person who evaluates the critical chocolate making processes of that company.  It is also used for a person who creates superior chocolates and chocolate confections using handcrafted or artisan techniques.  It can also be a reference to the shop of such a person.  It would be pretentious to use this term if you believe that baking is opening your favorite synthetic chocolate cake mix.
Chocolat Superieur   Fine, premium, superior, deluxe chocolates.
Chuao   Some of the finest Cacao beans in the world are produced in this single origin area in Venezuela.  The Chuao plantation has 100% Criollo beans and a hybrid cross of Criollo and Amelonado which produces a hardier and more productive plant.  One taste will make you a believer in the slightly tart Chocolate with potent cacao flavors and notes of local fruits such as plums, blueberries, Vanilla and molasses.
Cocoa   Not so simple a definition and apt to confuse the consumer.  Cocoa is a hot drink made from cacao powder, sweetened or unsweetened with other ingredients.  The word Cocoa refers only to the drink, not the ingredients.  Some US products use % of cocoa along with % of Cacao, which misleads the consumer.  It should refer only to the total content of ingredients from Cacao, not just the amount of cacao powder.  Chocolate Manufactures Association encourages the less confusing, and correct term, of % of Cacao.  Cocoa is made from Cacao powder, but hot chocolate, by contrast, is made from shaved chocolate which makes it richer because the chocolate still contains the Cacao butter.  If you buy your chocolate flavored drink in little envelopes please read the list of ingredients, it may not be what you think it is.
Cocoa Beans   Someone on a ship's manifest in the 18th century misspelled Cacao, and wrote COCOA instead, causing everyone to be confused every since.  Everything related to chocolate is from the fruit of the Theobroma Cacao tree, there are 3 major species of bean, the Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario and thousands of subspecies.  There is no Cocoa tree.
Compound Coating   This less expensive Chocolate like coating melts easily and hardens quickly and is used to coat fruit or for other decorating purposes.  All or part of the Cacao butter has been substituted for cheaper vegetable oil of some sort and includes other ingredients such as whey, dairy blends and artificial chemicals such as sorbitol of xylitol.   It may resemble real Chocolate, but is only chocolate flavoring, not chocolate.
Conching   This step reduces the moisture of the cacao mass and removes the acids.  The plowing back of forth through the liquid chocolate helps provide the flavor, texture and quality of the chocolate.
Confectionary   Confections include sweets such as cakes, pastries, jams, preserves, candies and have been made by confectioners since 4,000 BC.  It is also the name given to a Confectioner's shop.  The term doesn't indicate any quality or ingredients.

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Confiseur   Is the French word for confectioner and can indicate either a person or a business.
Cotyledon   Also known as the seed leaf, or the embryo of the Cacao bean, or any other seed plant.
Coulis   Is a puree of strained fruits that is served with ice cream, souffles, waffles, French toast or crepes.  Bonbons can be filled with a fruit coulis.  The coulis is mixed with cream to create a thicker, creamier center.
Couverture   Is a professional quality Chocolate coating with a high percentage of Cacao butter ranging from 32$ to 39%.  The extra Cacao butter allows the chocolate coating to be thinner.
Criollo   Considered the premium quality cacao bean, producing a lower yield per tree, rarer and harder to grow than other Cacao.
Cru   Another word borrowed from wineries meaning the physical environment where the Cacao plant is grown.  It indicates single varietals or areas with specific plants and can reflect countries or provinces.  Some Cacao producers create their own cru names to reflect their brand.  The final Chocolate product reflects the specific trees, the Cacao genetics, the harvesting time and other processes which may include fermentation, drying, roasting, blending, conching and private formulas.
Crumb   Is a liquid blend of sugar, milk and chocolate liquor created by the Cacao manufacture, it isn't a dry mixture as the term implies.
Crushing   Cacao beans are crushed into small pieces after roasting.   The Chocolatier blends various Cacao varieties to create the house formula, unless it's a single origin Chocolate.
Cuvee   The term used to describe a blend of various Cacao beans.
Dark Chocolate   European standards required a minimum of 43% Cacao, 70% is considered quite dark while 85% to 88% have become popular for dark chocolate lovers.  Actually there are even higher percentages including 100% for true Chocolate lovers.
Dark Milk Choc.   This new category of milk chocolate is with a higher percentage of Cacao offering the more intensive flavor of a semisweet bar but has the extra milky flavor and smoothness quality of milk chocolate.  This new bar comes in 45%, 51% 62% and 70% cacao with milk solids and sugar.  This could be a good transition bar for folks wanting to move toward dark chocolate and it's health benefits, but for dark chocolate lovers seeking health benefits, a 70% bar with 27% sugar will be considered to contain far too much sugar.
Decoration   The final embellishment where the artistic creativity adds the decoration to the bonbon, praline or nut, piping to the tops of individual chocolates.
Deodorization   Chocolate lovers will consider this an unholy act.  A manufacturing process where the natural, traditional chocolate flavors are removed from the Cacao butter.  This diabolic act allows marginal companies to use poor quality, alkali treated cacao beans that would produce poor quality Cacao butter if not sanitized.  Ethical companies will deodorize Cacao butter to create white chocolate, for those who believe there is such a thing.
Designated Origin   Also called single origin chocolate made from Cacao beans from a specific location.
Devil's Food   Most of the flavor in Devil's food is from Cacao butter, rather than chocolate.  It's considered a chocolate flavored product and may have many other artificial ingredients.
Diamant   Using the French word to reference diamond shaped chocoaltes.
Dipping    One of the methods used to coat chocolate onto a caramel, nut or fruit center and the original method done by artisan hand crafted producers of premium chocolates.
Dragee   Sugar coated almonds which are encapsulated in a hard coating.  There could be a chocolate coating under the sugar.  Popular as wedding favors and also used to describe sugar balls coated in gold or silver leaf to be used as confectionary decorations.
Dutching   Conraad Johannes van Houten, a 19th Century Dutchman developed the process of adding alkali-potash to Cacao nibs prior to roasting which would remove the natural acidic taste and color of the final industrial chocolate.  This is called Dutching, 100% natural Cacao and chocolate will never be alkalized.
Enrobing   This chocolate making method pours a layer of liquid chocolate over the center, which contrasts with pouring chocolate into molds.
Fair Trade   A certification that ensures Cacao farmers are paid a fair value for their beans which helps provide better agricultural methods, a reasonable standard of living and uses adult labor versus child labor.  Fair Trade is somewhat of a moot point, with Cacao, because the best chocolatiers are already paying higher prices to ensure their continued access to the limited supply of premium Cacao beans.
Fermentation   Unfermented cacao beans are used in traditional dishes in central America and Mexico, but to produce quality chocolate, with full body and richness, the critical work of proper fermentation is essential in order to bring out the best flavors of the chocolate.  The attention to fermentation is what separates the mass produced candy bars from premium or Artisan Chocolates.  The 40, or so, Cacao beans are gently scooped from the Cacao pods, collected and quickly placed into sweatboxes.  If it's not done quickly the beans begin to germinate almost immediately which will cause them to become bitter.  Fermentation begins the instant the beans are exposed to any air.  The temperature quickly reaches over 120 degrees inside the sweatbox where the cacao beans begin to develop their flavors through the natural chemical processes involved.  The beans are turned during the 3-7 day fermentation process.
Feuillete   Is the French term for cooked alternating layers of sugar and praline.
Feuilletine   A bonbon with thin crisp layers of thin pastry.
Feve de Cacao   Cacao bean in French.
Filled Chocolate   Filled chocolates with centers of fruit, caramels, creams or liqueur, another term for bonbons.
Finesse   Expressed in microns or ten thousandths of an inch which is the average particle size of the cacao solids in Chocolate.
Flat   When vanilla is left out of a formula the end result can taste slightly bland.
Flavanol   The species and subspecies of the Cacao bean, the formula, processing methods, storage and handling can play important roles in the antioxidant, or flavanol, levels in Cacao.  The higher the cacao percentage in quality chocolate, the higher the  antioxidant levels.  It is believed that a minimum of 75% cacao is important for maximum antioxidant benefits.  There isn't consensus on the amount required for optimal health benefits, but then each person is an individual, so that isn't surprising.

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Flavored Cacao   A chocolate bar that has nuts, nibs or fruit, or that has additional flavors such as coffee, raspberry, chile or cinnamon which have been added to the Chocolate.
Flavored Chocolate   Criollo is considerd a flavored Cacao because of it's delicate flavor and finesse.
Fondant   The French word to indicate dark or pure Chocolate as opposed to Milk Chocolate.
Forastero   While the Forastero species originated in the Amazon basin, it makes up the bulk of 80% - 90% of the world's Cacao yield and is now grown everywhere.  The Forastero is a much more adaptable, heartier and disease resistant tree, but the flavor isn't as robust.  The simple bitter beans require longer fermentation.   Generally Forasteros offer non complex flavors and make up the bulk of generic chocolate bars.
Forest Grown   Cacao beans that have been grown from deliberately cultivated trees in the indigenous rainforests.  Cacao thrives on biodiversity to resist disease and attract pollinators, it does far better intermingled in it's natural environment than it does on a cleared plantation.
Framboise   The French word for Raspberty and also references Bonbons or Truffles with this particular filling.
French Style   A bonbon with a thinner chocolate shell.  Originally French chocolates were enrobed, rather than molded.  Jean Neuhaus, a Belgium Chocolatier, created the molding technique in 1912.  French chocolates typically feature ganache centers, or centers infused with liqueurs, nuts or fruits.
Fudge    This confection is ultra rich and made from boiling sugar in milk, adding chocolate of some type and beating while cooling until it reaches a smooth, creamy consistency.
Ganache   Semisweet chocolate combined with boiling cream and stirring until smooth produces a silky rich Ganache.  Different formulas use different proportions of chocolate to cream and some add butter or liquors.  The end result is a sensuous smooth intense chocolate flavor.  It is used as a filling or topping for various other ultra rich desserts.
Garnissage   Filling a chocolate shell using a piping bag.
German Chocolate   Englishman Sam German developed a sweet baking chocolate in 1852.  Thinking it would be more convenient because the sugar was already added.  The name was given in his honor.
Germplasm   The DNA of a plant.
Ghana   Ghana grows mostly Forastero that is considered less bitter and with a bold flavor, often including the nuances of Coffee or tobacco.
Gianduja   Originally created by the Italians using a blend of Cacao mass, Cacao butter, sugar and hazelnuts.  Sometimes made with almonds.  This technique was created in the 19th century Torino, a major hazelnut producing area of Italy.  Cacao was very expensive because of the Napoleonic blockade preventing South America Cacao from reaching Italy.  The first Gianduja was created in 1985 when hazlenuts were blended with chocolate to make it more affordable.  It is made with milk and dark chocolate today.
Gourmandises   A category the in which the French include non Chocolate items sold by a chocolatier, such as chocolate dipped fruits, nougatines, pate de fruit and other things that we would normally put into the category of gourmet candy.
Grand Cru   Single origin chocolates created from a blend of, or single variety, cacao beans from a particular geographical area.  A term so broadly defined that a Grand Cru could be from anywhere in South America, or anywhere in Africa.
GrainLooking at a cross section of a chocolate bar when broken in two the crystallization pattern of the components can be noticed.
Grinding   Cacao nibs, raw or roasted, go through the grinding process which pulverizes them into chocolate liquor.  Nibs are 53% cacao butter, when ground the Cacao butter is extracted and separates the chocolate liquor.
Griotte   The French word for Morello Cherry which is often used in their Bonbons and Ganache.
Hacienda   An estate or plantation.  In this instance it refers to an Hacienda where Cacao is grown.  There are many other types of Haciendas.
Harvest   Cacao can be harvested all through the year, there are generally two harvests yearly with the growing seasons being from November to January and May to July.
1er Cru   This is the French abbreviation for premieur cru or 1st or premier growth.  Another term borrowed from wineries, now also used to Cacao farmers to designate their premier cacao beans.
Infuse   In order to add a gentle flavor to chocolate, such as raspberries, lemon, hibiscus, nuts or chiles, the selected item is added to melted chocolate allowed to steep.  The chocolate is then strained and fruit, blossoms or nuts are removed leaving a lingering flavor.
Interior   The center or filling of enrobed chocolates or other confections.
Java   Javanese beans produce quality beans frequently used in milk chocolate because of their bold flavors that can be diluted with milk solids, thus retaining a lower cacao content.  They tend to have dark smoky or leather ones or light, sweet and fragrant spicy tones.
Kakawa   Olmecs were said to be the first cultivators of Cacao and used this as the earliest known name for the Cacao plant.  This word is still used by the indigenous in Honduras.
Lecithin   You shouldn't find Soy lecithin in premier Chocolates.  There is nothing natural or healthy about Soy lecithin, not even organic soy lecithin.  Soy Lecithin   begins as a vile, toxic, Foul Smelling Sludge.  Around 1908 German companies were suffering similar waste disposal problems from their soybean oil refining industries.  What could they do with the ever increasing mountains of that foul smelling sludge?  Ever inventive and not to be out done, the European companies patented the process of creating soybean lecithin.  Soy lecithin is created from the gummy industrial hexane extracted soy oil waste product.  It's full of chemical solvents, and pesticides, is bleached to a more appealing color and is marketed as Healthy Soy Lecithin to unsuspecting consumers worldwide.  Their shrewd hired gun scientists brewed up thousands of uses by 1939.  You are seeing these products everyday in your supermarket, particularly in the Natural Food Section, where you can pay a premium price for toxins!  Soy lecithin is insidious, it's used as an emulsifier to keep water and fats from separating in processed food like substances such as margarine and other hydrogenated products.  It's in peanut butter, candies, chocolate, dressings, teas, cereals, ice cream, artificial coffee creamers, infant formulas, mayonnaise, and just about anything you can think of.  "Contains Soy"  is found on many products because even trace amounts of soy protein can trigger severe allergic reactions and minute traces remain in all soy products, even fermented.  If you're using soy for sustainability or environmental reasons, you have made the wrong choice.  There is nothing more environmentally destructive than Soybean plantations.  The world wide figures for soybean plantings keep rising, are spoken of in the millions of acres and are truly unfathomable.  Know that you are contributing to the destruction of Amazonian rainforest destruction when you buy anything with soy.
Limited Edition   Limited edition bars are produced when there are insufficient cacao beans from a small or unusual flavor harvesting with unique flavors that there will only ever be a limited number of bars ever produced.
Liquid Chocolate   Not chocolate.  Made with a vegetable oil rather than Cacao butter, requires no melting.  All convenience and no flavor or texture of real chocolate.

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89 Supreme Dark Rare Plantation Bar
89 Supreme Dark Rare Plantation Bar...
Bean 2 Bar - 89% Organic Cocoa Supreme Dark Rare Plantation Bar

Low Fat   Cacao powder which contains less than 10% Cacao butter.
Madagascar   A vibrant cacao growing region with pineapple, grape and citrus flavor tones.  Sharp on the palate but without the bitterness.
Maltitol   Not exactly what the manufacturers claim.   Maltitol is a carbohydrate that impacts your blood sugar almost the same as table sugar, with a high  glycemic index.  It can also give you the added bonus of causing intestinal gas, cramping and diarrhea.  Don't want sugar?  Eat  raw cacao!
Manon   A French classic, a butter cream filled bonbon with half of a walnut on top or inside the bonbon.  Couverture can be any type of Chocoale.
Maracaibo   Criollo Cacao grown along the Maracaibo river in Venezuela which produces a smooth, gemtle Cacao with red fruit tones, soft woods or sweet spices.
Marrons Glaces   These delicious glazed or crystallized Chestnuts are sold in bags on French street corners.  Cooked chestnuts are candied in a glucose and vanilla syrup.
Marzipan   A thick paste made from ground almonds and melted sugar.  The exterior shell of marzipan is a thin coating of dark, milk or white chocolate.  It offers a very potent almond flavor.
Medium Fat   Cacao powder which contains 10% to 22% Cacao butter.
Mendiant   Mendiants are made in large slabs and then broken into pieces.  They are chunks of chocolate with nuts, dried fruits, raisins, figs, peels or seeds that add to the beauty of the Mendiant.
Mexican Chocolate   Cacao beans are ground and mixed with almonds, sugar and cinnamon or nutmeg and cloves and pressed into tablets.  The chocolate is used for making hot chocolate.  Sadly, the packaged products that I can find have Soy lecithin in them.  Make your own using all natural ingredients.
Milk Chocolate   Said to be the most popular chocolate in North America.  It's made by combining chocolate liquid, cacao butter, milk or cream, sugar and flavorings.  Milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 10% chocolate liquor and 12% total milk ingredients.
Modeling Paste   A paste mixture that is used as decoration to create leaves, curls, ribbons or flowers for cakes and desserts.  The paste can be made with any type of chocolate, rolled out thinly and then shaped.  It is a mixture of chocolate and corn syrup.  Know that corn syrup it's likely made from GMO corn.
Mole   A classic Mexican creation of spicy, unsweetened Chocolate sauce generally served with poultry.  Legend was that an Archbishop was scheduled to visit a convent outside of Mexico city in the 16th century, the nuns prayed for inspiration of what to serve.  They created a blend of 20 ingredients which included spices, nuts, seeds, chocolate and various chiles.  It's an amazingly subtle, smooth sauce and utterly delicious.  Every person and region has their own special formula.
MolinilloThe wooden spindle created for frothing chocolate drinks was created by the Spanish in the 16th century.  Twisting the top between the hands to beat the chocolate makes your hands tired.  A simple wire whisk is far more effective.
Mouthfeel   Quality chocolate is smooth and will dissolve in your mouth and hands.  Candy bars and lessor quality chocolate will feel gritty, waxy or grainy in your mouth.  Generally that's an indication that the premium cacao butter has been substituted for some type of cheap vegetable oil.
Moulding   The technique for pouring chocolate into molds to create a chocolate shell that is filled with various centers before being topped with another layer of chocolate.
Nacional Cacao   In the 1800's a Swiss couverture manufacturer discovered this rare and unique scented Cacao in Ecuador and it dominated the world Couverture market.  The Ecuadorian Nacional cacao trees were virtually destroyed by disease about 100 years ago, and the surviving hybrid varieties never measured up to the originals.  Recently the USDA genetics lab for DNA testing confirmed pure Nacional discovered in Northern Peru.  In honor of the Peruvian farmer who's farm had the beans it was called Fortunato.  Actually Fortunato 4 because of the 14 samples sent to the USDA, sample number 4 expressed the purist form of Nacional Cacao.  Nacional thrives at higher elevations and is is first transported by burro, motorcycle and finally by ATV for processing.  It is said that Nacional Cacao offers a rare, delicate and unbeatable flavor.
Nougatine   Caramelized sugar mixed with roasted hazelnuts or almonds is made into a paste and crushed into small pieces to be used for fillings in chocolates.
Organic   A certification term offered by various organizations referencing how the products are produced.   Organic chocolate contains a minimum of 95% naturally grown and certified raw materials.  Shouldn't that be called Mostly Organic?  Organic foods are supposed to be grown without toxins, synthetic pesticides or fertilizes.  Sadly, the USDA has so diluted the intention and meaning of Organic Certification for many consumers, they now allow almost 300 artificial ingredients in the growing, harvesting, processing or manufacturing of their USDA Certified Organic label.  But then the USDA also wants to allow GMO to be considered organic.  Actually, Mercury could be considered organic using such loose definitions.  If eating natural, healthy chocolate or food concerns you read all labels and vote with your dollars.
Pate de Fruits   The fruit percentage of Pate de Fruit is more than 50% of the total ingredients and is made of sugar pulps and apple pectin used for fillings, tarts, torts and other confections.
Percentage Cacao   You won't find cacao percentages listed on candy bars for obvious reasons.  It relates to the total percentage of ingredients that are derived from Cacao, that would include Chocolate liquor, Cacao powder and Cacao butter.  The higher the percentage of Cacao the less amount of sugar and the lower the Cacao percentage the higher amounts of sugar.  Higher cacao percentages guaranteed more intense Chocolate taste and potential health benefits.  Unless you're used to it 100% Cacao, such as raw nibs or unsweetened baking chocolate, without any sugar, will taste bitter.  However, you can spice it up with a healthy blend of medicinal herbs, spices, botanicals or chiles.
Semisweet   By blending chocolate liquor with sweetening and extra cacao butter you create semisweet chocolate.  Generally sold in blocks or chips.  Semi sweet contains between 15% to 35% Chocolate liquor and cacao butter.  It also has sugar,  soy lecithin  and Vanilla.
Sheen   Premium chocolate or couverture generally has a lovely shine to it.  Chalky looking chocolate could be due to poor quality ingredients or it could only mean the chocolate has experienced temperature changes which causes the Cacao butter to separate and rise.  In that case the taste will not be altered, only the cosmetic appeal.
Single Origin   Single origin bars come from one specific region, Hacienda or country.  The flavor influences from the growing conditions effect the Cacao beans.
Sweet Chocolate   There must be a minimum of 15% chocolate liquor, the remainder can be Cacao butter and a whole lot of sugar.
Tempering   Proper tempering and cooling techniques offers a good chocolate bar with nice sheen.  The temperting allows the Cacao butter to crystallize which affects the finished product.  Wrong temperature or cooling and the end result will not be as pleasing.
Theobroma   Theo means "god"  and broma means "food"  in Greek.  The botanical name for Cacao is Theobroma Cacao or Food Of The Gods.
Truffle   Decadent, delicious and ultra rich little balls of blended butter, cream and chocolate.  Some truffles are filled with ganache, others are rolled in Cacao powder, nuts or powdered sugar.  Truffles were named after the valuable French mushroom because of their resemblance.  These premium chocolates are often handcrafted.  There are also luscious, healthy Raw Cacao Truffles.
Varietal   Varietals are made from a single type of cacao bean, however, those beans could come from different regions.
Viscosity    The flow capabilities of Chocolate when melted.
White Chocolate   Good quality White Chocolate must have a minimum of 32% Cacao butter, but it does not have any Chocolate liquor.  Made only from Cacao butter, sugar, milk and Vanilla, it's not really chocolate, there are no Cacao solids.  The FDA established White Chocolate standards in 2002 which stipulate that it must contain Cacao butter and 14% total milk ingredients.  But what is the rest made of?
Xocoatl   Pronounced "Ho Co Ah Tay"  the original named used for the stimulating Cacao drink blended with spices, herbs and water.

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Copyright All Rights Reserved 2010 Toni Reita ND

Under the current FDA laws in the united States, it is illegal to make any medical claims for any health supplements or any other natural product.   This information is for educational purposes only and is not intended to make any medical claims, diagnose, treat, cure, prevent or mitigate any physical or mental condition, nor to prescribe any substance.  This site provides helpful natural information and is supported by compensation from quality advertisers and affiliate relationships.